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Voluntary Partnership Agreements

Cameroon-EU VPA text and annexes [Download PDF]

Central African Republic-EU VPA text and annexes [Download PDF]

Ghana-EU VPA text and annexes [Download PDF]

Indonesia-EU VPA text and annexes [Download PDF]

Liberia-EU VPA text and annexes [Download PDF]

Republic of the Congo-EU VPA text and annexes [Download PDF]

EU regulations

FLEGT Action Plan

EU Timber Regulation

FLEGT Licensing Scheme Regulation

Implementing Regulation of the EU Timber Regulation

Sources used in VPA Unpacked

Adeleke, A. 2008. Forest Law Enforcement, Governance (FLEG) and Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) in Ghana. IUCN. 7pp. [Download PDF]

Bodegom, A. J. et al. 2008.FLEGT Beyond T: Exploring the Meaning of Governance Concepts for the FLEGT Process. Wageningen University. Netherlands. [Download PDF]

Bollen, A. and Ozinga, S. 2013. Improving Forest Governance. A Comparison of FLEGT VPAs and Their Impact. FERN. 50pp. [Download PDF]

Booth, D. and Unsworth, S. 2014. Politically Smart, Locally Led Development. Overseas Development Institute. London, United Kingdom. [Download PDF]

Brack, D. and Leger, C. 2013 Exploring Credibility Gaps in Voluntary Partnership Agreements: A review of independent monitoring initiatives and lessons to learn. Independently published. [Download PDF]

Cameroon-EU. 2013. Joint Annual Report 2013: On the Implementation of the FLEGT VPA in Cameroon [Download PDF; in French]

Canby, K. 2013. Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) or How to do effective consultation for national policies? Forest Trends PowerPoint presentation. [Download PDF]

Capacity4Development. 2013. Civil society shares their experience of the VPA process at FLEGT Week 2013. [Read online]

Centre pour l'Environnement et le Développement. 2013. The challenges of implementing VPA in Cameroon. Policy Brief. April 2013. [Download PDF]

Duffield, L. and Ozinga, S. 2014. Making Forestry Fairer. A Practical Guide for Civil Society Organisations Taking Part in VPA Negotiations. FERN. 68pp. [Download PDF]

European Commission. 2012. Combatting illegal logging: Lessons from the EU FLEGT Action Plan. [Download PDF]

European Forest Institute. 2008. EFI Policy Brief 2. Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade – the European Union approach. [Download PDF]

European Forest Institute. 2009. EFI Policy Brief 3. What is a Voluntary Partnership Agreement? – the European Union Approach. [Download PDF]

European Forest Institute. 2010. EFI Policy Brief 5: Changing International Markets for Timber and Wood Products – Main Policy Instruments. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 01: What is FLEGT? European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 02: What is legal timber? European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 03: A timber legality assurance system. European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 04: Control of the supply chain: wood tracing systems and chain of custody. European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 05: Legality assurance systems: requirements for verification. European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 06: Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPA). European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 07: Guidelines for Independent Monitoring. European Union. [Download PDF]

European Union. 2007. FLEGT Briefing Note 08: Market participant-based legality assurance and FLEGT licensing. European Union. [Download PDF]

Falconer, J. 2013. Overview of VPA processes: opportunities and challenges for projects to advance FLEGT. Presentation to FLEGT Project coordination meeting. 9 October 2013, Brussels. [Download PowerPoint presentation]

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2014. The Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) Process in Central and West Africa: From Theory to Practice. FAO. Rome, Italy. 58pp. [Download PDF]

Faure, N. and Lesniewska, F. 2012. Implementing VPAs: Outlining Approaches for Civil Society's Participation in VPA-related Law Reforms. Ghana Regional Workshop: Experiences from the FLEGT/VPA process in West and Central African countries. ClientEarth. [Download PDF]

FERN et al. 2008. Consultation requirements under FLEGT. LoggingOff Briefing note #1 [Download PDF]

Forest Governance Forum. 2012. Report from regional conference on experiences from the VPA process in West and Central African countries, 23–25 October 2012. [Download PDF]

Fripp, E. 2004. FLEGT and Trade: What will the impacts be? Chatham House. [Download PDF]

Ghana-EU. 2012. Annual Report 2012: Implementing the Ghana-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement [Download PDF]

Global Witness. 2012. African timber exporting countries failing to meet access to information commitments. Press release. 9 October 2012 [Read online]

Global Witness. 2012. Making the Forest Sector Transparent. VPA Transparency Gap Assessment 2012 [Download PDF]

Jeffree, M. 2014. FLEGT forest power to the people. Timber Trades Journal Online October 2014: 48–49.

JPIK. 2014. JPIK calls the government of Indonesia to improve the timber legality assurance system (SVLK). Press release. 24 November 2014. [Read online]

Lawson, S. and McFaul, L. 2010. Illegal Logging and Related Trade: Indicators of the Global Response. Chatham House, London. [Download PDF]

Liberia-EU. 2012. Progress Report: Moving Towards VPA Implementation. Preparation for the implementation of the FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreement. 2011-2012. [Download PDF]

Meridian, A. et al. 2014. SVLK in the Eyes of the Monitor. Independent monitoring and a review of the implementation of the timber legality verification system 2011–2013. JPIK (Indonesia Independent Forestry Monitoring Network). [Download PDF]

Othman, M. et al. 2012. FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreements. European Tropical Forest Research Network (ETFRN) News 53: 109–116. [Download PDF]

Pearce, F. 2012. Forest Stands: How New EU Trade Laws Help Countries Protect Both Forests and Peoples. FERN. 24pp. [Download PDF]

Pye-Smith, C. 2010. Cameroon's Hidden Harvest. CIFOR. Bogor, Indonesia. 30pp. [Download PDF]

Tropenbos International. 2014. Effectively addressing domestic and regional timber trade within FLEGT VPAs [Read online]

Tropenbos International. 2014. FLEGT-VPA: 90% of stakeholders are not aware the process in Province Orientale, DR Congo [Read online]

Online resources

Illegal logging portal ( Hosted and maintained by Chatham House, this site provides information on illegal logging and the trade in illegal timber.

Logging off ( An online resource for information on Voluntary Partnership Agreements.

Cap4Dev FLEGT group ( Cap4Dev is the European Commission's primary knowledge sharing platform on development and external cooperation

European Commission's EU Timber Regulation website (

European Commission's illegal logging website (


Disclaimer. The content of VPA Unpacked is based on lessons and experiences captured and described by the EU FLEGT Facility and therefore is the sole responsibility of the Facility. For comments or questions, please contact the EU FLEGT Facility at:

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